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Many translated example sentences containing "in the ocean" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Many translated example sentences containing "over the ocean" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The Ocean at the End of the Lane: A Novel | Gaiman, Neil | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Learn and review these 13 common idioms with words related to the sea, ocean, sea life and sailing. ocean current [ˈəʊʃnˌkʌrənt], ocean drift, sea current, marine current SUBST. Geographie-Fachwortschatz mit freundlicher Genehmigung von Ernst Klett. Übersetzung im Kontext von „the ocean floor“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: The CO2 captured in the algae is transported to the ocean floor once. If you live near the ocean or if your hammock chair will be used after swimming, you will need to rinse it out more often to get rid of the salt water and chlorine.
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See all partners. Most terrestrial wildlife species do not migrate over great distances, and none over oceans. The oxygen concentration profile of oceans is related to the oxygen content of the atmosphere.
There is a need for further development of such instruments, for example for the study of sediment and other moving objects in oceans and rivers. Another feature of lakes, fjords and coastal oceans is they are rarely quiescent; rather there is generally some background shear due to a large-scale flow.
Chapter 7 focuses on the changing chemistry in oceans and atmosphere and for me was the best chapter in the book. In the oceans, the great average water depth over 4 km prevents the smallest, and most frequent, impacts from forming craters on the sea bed.
The unique fauna found in the oceans, conceivably, should provide new pathways on which parasites may capitalise within food webs, ultimately facilitating parasite diversification.
Such flows occur commonly in nature, examples being katabatic winds and turbidity currents in the oceans. The developers believe that all kinds of robotic creatures will explore the oceans and send back information.
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However, as a consequence of human actions that fragment wetland habitats and restrict landward migration, coastal ecosystems progressively lose their ability to adapt to climate-induced changes and provide ecosystem services, including acting as protective barriers high confidence.
Coastal risk is dynamic and increased by widely observed changes in coastal infrastructure, community livelihoods, agriculture and habitability high confidence.
As with coastal ecosystems, attribution of observed changes and associated risk to SLR remains challenging. Drivers and processes inhibiting attribution include demographic, resource and land use changes and anthropogenic subsidence.
A diversity of adaptation responses to coastal impacts and risks have been implemented around the world, but mostly as a reaction to current coastal risk or experienced disasters high confidence.
Hard coastal protection measures dikes, embankments, sea walls and surge barriers are widespread, providing predictable levels of safety in northwest Europe, East Asia, and around many coastal cities and deltas.
Ecosystem-based adaptation EbA is continuing to gain traction worldwide, providing multiple co-benefits, but there is still low agreement on its cost and long-term effectiveness.
Advance, which refers to the creation of new land by building into the sea e. Retreat is observed but largely restricted to small communities or carried out for the purpose of creating new wetland habitat.
Future rise in GMSL caused by thermal expansion, melting of glaciers and ice sheets and land water storage changes, is strongly dependent on which Representative Concentration Pathway RCP emission scenario is followed.
SLR at the end of the century is projected to be faster under all scenarios, including those compatible with achieving the long-term temperature goal set out in the Paris Agreement.
GMSL will rise between 0. Beyond , sea level will continue to rise for centuries due to continuing deep ocean heat uptake and mass loss of the GIS and AIS and will remain elevated for thousands of years high confidence.
Under RCP8. Estimates of SLR higher than the likely range are also provided here for decision makers with low risk tolerance.
These high rates challenge the implementation of adaptation measures that involve a long lead time, but this has not yet been studied in detail.
Evolution of the AIS beyond the end of the 21st century is characterized by deep uncertainty as ice sheet models lack realistic representations of some of the underlying physical processes.
The few model studies available addressing time scales of centuries to millennia indicate multi-metre 2.
There is low confidence in threshold temperatures for ice sheet instabilities and the rates of GMSL rise they can produce.
Sea level rise is not globally uniform and varies regionally. Subsidence caused by human activities is currently the most important cause of relative sea level rise RSL change in many delta regions.
While the comparative importance of climate-driven RSL rise will increase over time, these findings on anthropogenic subsidence imply that a consideration of local processes is critical for projections of sea level impacts at local scales high confidence.
Many low-lying cities and small islands at most latitudes will experience such events annually by Greenhouse gas GHG mitigation envisioned in low-emission scenarios e.
Low-emission scenarios lead to slower rates of SLR and allow for a wider range of adaptation options. For the first half of the 21st century differences in ESL events among the scenarios are small, facilitating adaptation planning.
Non-climatic anthropogenic drivers will continue to increase the exposure and vulnerability of coastal communities to future SLR and ESL events in the absence of major adaptation efforts compared to today high confidence.
The expected impacts of SLR on coastal ecosystems over the course of the century include habitat contraction, loss of functionality and biodiversity, and lateral and inland migration.
Impacts will be exacerbated in cases of land reclamation and where anthropogenic barriers prevent inland migration of marshes and mangroves and limit the availability and relocation of sediment high confidence.
Under favourable conditions, marshes and mangroves have been found to keep pace with fast rates of SLR e. In the absence of adaptation, more intense and frequent ESL events, together with trends in coastal development will increase expected annual flood damages by orders of magnitude by high confidence.
However, well designed coastal protection is very effective in reducing expected damages and cost efficient for urban and densely populated regions, but generally unaffordable for rural and poorer areas high confidence.
Effective protection requires investments on the order of tens to several hundreds of billions of USD yr -1 globally high confidence. While investments are generally cost efficient for densely populated and urban areas high confidence , rural and poorer areas will be challenged to afford such investments with relative annual costs for some small island states amounting to several percent of GDP high confidence.
Even with well-designed hard protection, the risk of possibly disastrous consequences in the event of failure of defences remains. Risk related to SLR including erosion, flooding and salinisation is expected to significantly increase by the end of this century along all low-lying coasts in the absence of major additional adaptation efforts very high confidence.
While only urban atoll islands and some Arctic communities are expected to experience moderate to high risk relative to today in a low emission pathway, almost high to very high risks are expected in all low-lying coastal settings at the upper end of the likely range for high emission pathways medium confidence.
While a slower rate of SLR enables greater opportunities for adapting, adaptation benefits are also expected to vary between coastal settings.
Although ambitious adaptation will not necessarily eradicate end-century SLR risk medium confidence , it will help to buy time in many locations and therefore help to lay a robust foundation for adaptation beyond All types of responses to SLR, including protection, accommodation, EbA, advance and retreat, have important and synergistic roles to play in an integrated and sequenced response to SLR high confidence.
Hard protection and advance building into the sea are economically efficient in most urban contexts facing land scarcity high confidence , but can lead to increased exposure in the long term.
Where sufficient space is available, EbA can both reduce coastal risks and provide multiple other benefits medium confidence. Accommodation such as flood proofing buildings and EWS for ESL events are often both low-cost and highly cost-efficient in all contexts high confidence.
Where coastal risks are already high, and population size and density are low, or in the aftermath of a coastal disaster, retreat may be especially effective, albeit socially, culturally and politically challenging.
Technical limits to hard protection are expected to be reached under high emission scenarios RCP8. Economic challenges to hard protection increase with higher sea levels and will make adaptation unaffordable before technical limits are reached high confidence.
For corals, limits may be reached during this century, due to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and for tidal wetlands due to pollution and infrastructure limiting their inland migration.
Limits to accommodation are expected to occur well before limits to protection occur. Limits to retreat are uncertain, reflecting research gaps. Social barriers including governance challenges to adaptation are already encountered.
Choosing and implementing responses to SLR presents society with profound governance challenges and difficult social choices, which are inherently political and value laden high confidence.
The large uncertainties about post SLR, and the substantial impact expected, challenge established planning and decision making practises and introduce the need for coordination within and between governance levels and policy domains.
SLR responses also raise equity concerns about marginalising those most vulnerable and could potentially spark or compound social conflict high confidence.
Despite the large uncertainties about post SLR, adaptation decisions can be made now, facilitated by using decision analysis methods specifically designed to address uncertainty high confidence.
These methods favour flexible responses i. They use robustness criteria i. One example is adaptation pathway analysis, which has emerged as a low-cost tool to assess long-term coastal responses as sequences of adaptive decisions in the face of dynamic coastal risk characterised by deep uncertainty medium evidence, high agreement.
The range of SLR to be considered in decisions depends on the risk tolerance of stakeholders, with stakeholders whose risk tolerance is low also considering SLR higher than the likely range.
Adaptation experience to date demonstrates that using a locally appropriate combination of decision analysis, land use planning, public participation and conflict resolution approaches can help to address the governance challenges faced in responding to SLR high confidence.
Effective SLR responses depend, first, on taking a long-term perspective when making short-term decisions, explicitly accounting for uncertainty of locality-specific risks beyond high confidence , and building governance capabilities to tackle the complexity of SLR risk medium evidence, high agreement.
Second, improved coordination of SLR responses across scales, sectors and policy domains can help to address SLR impacts and risk high confidence.
Third, prioritising consideration of social vulnerability and equity underpins efforts to promote fair and just climate resilience and sustainable development high confidence and can be helped by creating safe community arenas for meaningful public deliberation and conflict resolution medium evidence, high agreement.
Finally, public awareness and understanding about SLR risks and responses can be improved by drawing on local, indigenous and scientific knowledge systems, together with social learning about locality-specific SLR risk and response potential high confidence.
The ocean is essential for all aspects of human well-being and livelihood. It provides key services like climate regulation, through the energy budget, carbon cycle and nutrient cycle.
The ocean is the home of biodiversity ranging from microbes to marine mammals that form a wide variety of ecosystems in open pelagic and coastal ocean.
Carbon emissions from human activities are causing ocean warming, acidification and oxygen loss with some evidence of changes in nutrient cycling and primary production.
The warming ocean is affecting marine organisms at multiple trophic levels, impacting fisheries with implications for food production and human communities.
Concerns regarding the effectiveness of existing ocean and fisheries governance have already been reported, highlighting the need for timely mitigation and adaptation responses.
The warming trend is further confirmed by the improved ocean temperature measurements over the last decade. The long-term trend for 0— m and — m layers have warmed 4.
It is likely that the rate of ocean warming has increased since This represents at least a two-fold increase in heat uptake.
The upper ocean is very likely to have been stratifying since Observed warming and high-latitude freshening are making the surface ocean less dense over time relative to the deeper ocean high confidence 2 and inhibiting the exchange between surface and deep waters.
The upper m stratification increase is in the very likely range of between 2. Multiple datasets and models show that the rate of ocean uptake of atmospheric CO 2 has continued to strengthen in the recent two decades in response to the increasing concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere.
Evidence is growing that the ocean carbon sink is dynamic on decadal timescales, especially in the Southern Ocean, which has affected the total global ocean carbon sink medium confidence.
The ocean is continuing to acidify in response to ongoing ocean carbon uptake. The open ocean surface water pH is observed to be declining virtually certain by a very likely range of 0.
These changes in pH have reduced the stability of mineral forms of calcium carbonate due to a lowering of carbonate ion concentrations, most notably in the upwelling and high-latitude regions of the ocean.
There is a growing consensus that the open ocean is losing oxygen overall with a very likely loss of 0. Globally, the oxygen loss due to warming is reinforced by other processes associated with ocean physics and biogeochemistry, which cause the majority of the observed oxygen decline high confidence.
In response to ocean warming and increased stratification, open ocean nutrient cycles are being perturbed and there is high confidence that this is having a regionally variable impact on primary producers.
There is currently low confidence in appraising past open ocean productivity trends, including those determined by satellites, due to newly identified region-specific drivers of microbial growth and the lack of corroborating in situ time series datasets.
Ocean warming has contributed to observed changes in biogeography of organisms ranging from phytoplankton to marine mammals high confidence , consequently changing community composition high confidence , and in some cases, altering interactions between organisms medium confidence.
Observed rate of range shifts since the s and its very likely range are estimated to be The direction of the majority of the shifts of epipelagic organisms are consistent with a response to warming high confidence.
Warming-induced range expansion of tropical species to higher latitudes has led to increased grazing on some coral reefs, rocky reefs, seagrass meadows and epipelagic ecosystems, leading to altered ecosystem structure medium confidence.
Warming, sea level rise SLR and enhanced loads of nutrients and sediments in deltas have contributed to salinisation and deoxygenation in estuaries high confidence , and have caused upstream redistribution of benthic and pelagic species according to their tolerance limits medium confidence.
Fisheries catches and their composition in many regions are already impacted by the effects of warming and changing primary production on growth, reproduction and survival of fish stocks high confidence.
Species composition of fisheries catches since the s in many shelf seas ecosystems of the world is increasingly dominated by warm water species medium confidence.
Warming-induced changes in spatial distribution and abundance of fish stocks have already challenged the management of some important fisheries and their economic benefits high confidence.
Coastal ecosystems are observed to be under stress from ocean warming and SLR that are exacerbated by non-climatic pressures from human activities on ocean and land high confidence.
Warming related mangrove encroachment into subtropical salt marshes has been observed in the past 50 years high confidence. Inundation, coastline erosion and salinisation are causing inland shifts in plant species distributions, which has been accelerating in the last decades medium confidence.
Warming has increased the frequency of large-scale coral bleaching events, causing worldwide reef degradation since — with cases of shifts to algal-dominated reefs high confidence.
Sessile calcified organisms e. Increased nutrient and organic matter loads in estuaries since the s have exacerbated the effects of warming on bacterial respiration and eutrophication, leading to expansion of hypoxic areas high confidence.
Coastal and near-shore ecosystems including salt marshes, mangrove and vegetated dunes in sandy beaches have a varying capacity to build vertically and expand laterally in response to SLR.
These ecosystems provide important services including coastal protection, carbon sequestration and habitat for diverse biota high confidence.
The carbon emission associated with the loss of vegetated coastal ecosystems is estimated to be 0. The natural capacity of ecosystems to adapt to climate impacts may be limited by human activities that fragment wetland habitats and restrict landward migration high confidence.
However, the interaction of coastal warming and local winds may have affected upwelling strength, with the direction of changes varies between and within EBUS low confidence.
Since the early s, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms HABs and pathogenic organisms e. These impacts depend on species-specific responses to the interactive effects of climate change and other human drivers e.
Human communities in poorly monitored areas are among the most vulnerable to these biological hazards medium confidence. Many frameworks for climate resilient coastal adaptation have been developed since AR5, with substantial variations in approach between and within countries, and across development status high confidence.
Few studies have assessed the success of implementing these frameworks due to the time-lag between implementation, monitoring, evaluation and reporting medium confidence.
Climate models project significant changes in the ocean state over the coming century. By the ocean is very likely to warm by 2 to 4 times as much for low emissions RCP2.
The 0— m layer of the ocean is projected to warm by a further ZJ very likely range — ZJ between and for the RCP8. The upper ocean will continue to stratify.
It is very likely that the majority of coastal regions will experience statistically significant changes in tidal amplitudes over the course of the 21st century.
The sign and amplitude of local changes to tides are very likely to be impacted by both human coastal adaptation measures and climate drivers.
It is virtually certain that surface ocean pH will decline, by 0. Oxygen is projected to decline further. Globally, the oxygen content of the ocean is very likely to decline by 3.
The volume of the oceans OMZ is projected to grow by a very likely range of 7. The emergence of oxygen loss is very likely smaller in area for the RCP2.
There is low confidence regarding projected increases in surface ocean iron levels due to systemic uncertainties in these models. The decline is due to the combined effects of warming, stratification, light, nutrients and predation and will show regional variations between low and high latitudes l ow confidence.
New ocean states for a broad suite of climate indices will progressively emerge over a substantial fractions of the ocean in the coming century relative to past internal ocean variability , with Earth System Models ESMs showing an ordered emergence of first pH, followed by sea surface temperature SST , interior oxygen, upper ocean nutrient levels and finally net primary production NPP.
The anthropogenic pH signal has very likely emerged for three quarters of the ocean prior to , with little difference between scenarios.
Simulated ocean warming and changes in NPP during the 21st century are projected to alter community structure of marine organisms high confidence , reduce global marine animal biomass medium confidence and the maximum potential catches of fish stocks medium confidence with regional differences in the direction and magnitude of changes high confidence.
The global biomass of marine animals, including those that contribute to fisheries, is projected to decrease with a very likely range under RCP2.
The maximum catch potential is projected to decrease by 3. Projected decreases in global marine animal biomass and fish catch potential could elevate the risk of impacts on income, livelihood and food security of the dependent human communities medium confidence.
Projected climate change impacts on fisheries also increase the risk of potential conflicts among fishery area users and authorities or among two different communities within the same country medium confidence , exacerbated through competing resource exploitation from international actors and mal-adapted policies low confidence.
Projected decrease in upper ocean export of organic carbon to the deep seafloor is expected to result in a loss of animal biomass on the deep seafloor by 5.
Some increases are projected in the polar regions, due to enhanced stratification in the surface ocean, reduced primary production and shifts towards small phytoplankton medium confidence.
The projected impacts on biomass in the abyssal seafloor are larger under RCP8. The increase in climatic hazards beyond thresholds of tolerance of deep sea organisms will increase the risk of loss of biodiversity and impacts on functioning of deep water column and seafloor that is important to support ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration medium confidence.
Structure and functions of all types of coastal ecosystems will continue to be at moderate to high risk under the RCP2.
Seagrass meadows high confidence and kelp forests high confidence will face moderate to high risk at temperature above 1.
Coral reefs will face very high risk at temperatures 1. These ecosystems have low to moderate adaptive capacity, as they are highly sensitive to ocean temperatures and acidification.
The ecosystems with moderate to high risk transition above 1. Estuaries and sandy beaches are subject to highly dynamic hydrological and geomorphological processes, giving them more natural adaptive capacity to climate hazards.
In these systems, sediment relocation, soil accretion and landward expansion of vegetation may initially mitigate against flooding and habitat loss, but salt marshes in particular will be at very high risk in the context of SLR and extreme climate-driven erosion under RCP8.
Expected coastal ecosystem responses over the 21st century are habitat contraction, migration and loss of biodiversity and functionality.
Pervasive human coastal disturbances will limit natural ecosystem adaptation to climate hazards high confidence. Kelp forests at low-latitudes and temperate seagrass meadows will continue to retreat as a result of intensified extreme temperatures, and their low dispersal ability will elevate the risk of local extinction under RCP8.
Intertidal rocky shores will continue to be affected by ocean acidification, warming, and extreme heat exposure during low tide emersion, causing reduction of calcareous species and loss of ecosystem biodiversity and complexity shifting towards algae dominated habitats high confidence.
Salinisation and expansion of hypoxic conditions will intensify in eutrophic estuaries, especially in mid and high latitudes with microtidal regimes high confidence.
Sandy beach ecosystems will increasingly be at risk of eroding, reducing the habitable area for dependent organisms high confidence. These declines in coral reef health will greatly diminish the services they provide to society, such as food provision high confidence , coastal protection high confidence and tourism medium confidence.
Multiple hazards of warming, deoxygenation, aragonite under-saturation and decrease in flux of organic carbon from the surface ocean will decrease calcification and exacerbate the bioerosion and dissolution of the non-living component of cold water coral.
Anthropogenic changes in EBUS will emerge primarily in the second half of the 21st century medium confidence. EBUS will be impacted by climate change in different ways, with strong regional variability with consequences for fisheries, recreation and climate regulation medium confidence.
The inherent natural variability of EBUS, together with uncertainties in present and future trends in the intensity and seasonality of upwelling, coastal warming and stratification, primary production and biogeochemistry of source waters poses large challenges in projecting the response of EBUS to climate change and to the adaptation of governance of biodiversity conservation and living marine resources in EBUS high confidence.
Climate change impacts on ecosystems and their goods and services threatens key cultural dimensions of lives and livelihoods. These threats include erosion of Indigenous and non-indigenous culture, their knowledge about the ocean and knowledge transmission, reduced access to traditional food, loss of opportunities for aesthetic and spiritual appreciation of the ecosystems, and marine recreational activities medium confidence.
Climate change increases the exposure and bioaccumulation of contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants and mercury medium confidence , and their risk of impacts on marine ecosystems and seafood safety high agreement, medium evidence, medium confidence.
Such risks are particularly large for top predators and for human communities that have high consumption on these organisms, including coastal Indigenous communities medium confidence.
Shifting distributions of fish stocks between governance jurisdictions will increase the risk of potential conflicts among fishery area users and authorities or different communities within the same country medium confidence.
These fishery governance related risks are widespread under high emissions scenarios with regional hotspots medium confidence , and highlight the limits of existing natural resource management frameworks for addressing ecosystem change high confidence.
There is clear evidence for observed climate change impacts throughout the ocean with consequences for human communities and require options to reduce risks and impacts.
Some ocean indices are expected to emerge earlier than others e. The survival of some keystone ecosystems e.
Ecosystem restoration may be able to locally reduce climate risks medium confidence but at relatively high cost and effectiveness limited to low emissions scenarios and to less sensitive systems high confidence.
Coastal blue carbon ecosystems, such as mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses, can help reduce the risks and impacts of climate change, with multiple co-benefits.
Some countries around the world contain at least one of these coastal blue carbon ecosystems and 71 countries contain all three. Below-ground carbon storage in vegetated marine habitats can be up to tC ha -1 , much higher than most terrestrial ecosystems high confidence.
Successful implementation of measures to maintain and promote carbon storage in such coastal ecosystems could assist several countries in achieving a balance between emissions and removals of greenhouse gases medium confidence.
Conservation of these habitats would also sustain the wide range of ecosystem services they provide and assist with climate adaptation through improving critical habitats for biodiversity, enhancing local fisheries production, and protecting coastal communities from SLR and storm events high confidence.
The climate mitigation effectiveness of other natural carbon removal processes in coastal waters, such as seaweed ecosystems and proposed non-biological marine CO 2 removal methods, are smaller or currently have higher associated uncertainties.
Seaweed aquaculture warrants further research attention. The potential climatic benefits of blue carbon ecosystems can only be a very modest addition to, and not a replacement for, the very rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Nevertheless, the protection and enhancement of coastal blue carbon can be an important contribution to both mitigation and adaptation at the national scale.
The feasibility of climate mitigation by open ocean fertilisation of productivity is limited to negligible, due to the likely decadal-scale return to the atmosphere of nearly all the extra carbon removed, associated difficulties in carbon accounting, risks of unintended side effects and low acceptability.
Other human interventions to enhance marine carbon uptake, for example, ocean alkalinisation enhanced weathering , would also have governance challenges, with the increased risk of undesirable ecological consequences high confidence.
Socioinstitutional adaptation responses are more frequently reported in the literature than ecosystem-based and built infrastructure approaches. Hard engineering responses are more effective when supported by ecosystem-based adaptation approaches high agreement , and both approaches are enhanced by combining with socioinstitutional approaches for adaptation high confidence.
Stakeholder engagement is necessary robust evidence, high agreement. Ecosystem-based adaptation is a cost-effective coastal protection tool that can have many co-benefits, including supporting livelihoods, contributing to carbon sequestration and the provision of a range of other valuable ecosystem services high confidence.
Such adaptation does, however, assume that the climate can be stabilised. Under changing climatic conditions there are limits to the effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation, and these limits are currently difficult to determine.
Socioinstitutional adaptation responses, including community-based adaptation, capacity-building, participatory processes, institutional support for adaptation planning and support mechanisms for communities are important tools to address climate change impacts high confidence.
For fisheries management, improving coordination of integrated coastal management and marine protected areas MPAs have emerged in the literature as important adaptation governance responses robust evidence, medium agreement.
Observed widespread decline in warm water corals has led to the consideration of alternative restoration approaches to enhance climate resilience.
However, the effectiveness of these approaches to increase resilience to climate stressors and their large-scale implementation for reef restoration will be limited unless warming and ocean acidification are rapidly controlled high confidence.
Existing ocean governance structures are already facing multi-dimensional, scale-related challenges because of climate change. This trend of increasing complexity will continue high confidence.
The mechanisms for the governance of marine Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction ABNJ , such as ocean acidification, would benefit from further development high confidence.
There is also scope to increase the overall effectiveness of international and national ocean governance regimes by increasing cooperation, integration and widening participation medium confidence.
Diverse adaptations of ocean related governance are being tried, and some are producing promising results. However, rigorous evaluation is needed of the effectiveness of these adaptations in achieving their goals.
There are a broad range of identified barriers and limits for adaptation to climate change in ecosystems and human systems high confidence.
Limitations include the space that ecosystems require, non-climatic drivers and human impacts that need to be addressed as part of the adaptation response, the lowering of adaptive capacity of ecosystems because of climate change, and the slower ecosystem recovery rates relative to the recurrence of climate impacts, availability of technology, knowledge and financial support and existing governance structures medium confidence.
This chapter assesses extremes and abrupt or irreversible changes in the ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate, to identify regional hot spots, cascading effects, their impacts on human and natural systems, and sustainable and resilient risk management strategies.
It is not comprehensive in terms of the systems assessed and some information on extremes, abrupt and irreversible changes, in particular for the cryosphere, may be found in other chapters.
Anthropogenic climate change has increased observed precipitation medium confidence , winds low confidence , and extreme sea level events high confidence associated with some tropical cyclones, which has increased intensity of multiple extreme events and associated cascading impacts high confidence.
Anthropogenic climate change may have contributed to a poleward migration of maximum tropical cyclone intensity in the western North Pacific in recent decades related to anthropogenically-forced tropical expansion low confidence.
There is emerging evidence for an increase in annual global proportion of Category 4 or 5 tropical cyclones in recent decades low confidence. Changes in Arctic sea ice have the potential to influence mid-latitude weather medium confidence , but there is low confidence in the detection of this influence for specific weather types.
Extreme wave heights, which contribute to extreme sea level events, coastal erosion and flooding, have increased in the Southern and North Atlantic Oceans by around 1.
Sea ice loss in the Arctic has also increased wave heights over the period — medium confidence. Marine heatwaves MHWs , periods of extremely high ocean temperatures, have negatively impacted marine organisms and ecosystems in all ocean basins over the last two decades, including critical foundation species such as corals, seagrasses and kelps very high confidence.
Globally, marine heat related events have increased; marine heatwaves, defined when the daily sea surface temperature exceeds the local 99 th percentile over the period to , have doubled in frequency and have become longer-lasting, more intense and more extensive very likel y.
The equatorial Pacific trade wind system experienced an unprecedented intensification during — , resulting in enhanced ocean heat transport from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, influencing the rate of global temperature change medium confidence.
Pacific sea surface temperature SST cooling trends and strengthened trade winds have been linked to an anomalously warm tropical Atlantic.
Observations, both in situ — and based on sea surface temperature reconstructions, indicate that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation AMOC has weakened relative to — medium confidence.
There is insufficient data to quantify the magnitude of the weakening, or to properly attribute it to anthropogenic forcing due to the limited length of the observational record.
Although attribution is currently not possible, CMIP5 model simulations of the period —, on average, exhibit a weakening AMOC when driven by anthropogenic forcing.
Climate change is modifying multiple types of climate-related events or hazards in terms of occurrence, intensity and periodicity.
It increases the likelihood of compound hazards that comprise simultaneously or sequentially occurring events to cause extreme impacts in natural and human systems.
Compound events in turn trigger cascading impacts high confidence. Rising mean sea levels will contribute to higher extreme sea levels associated with tropical cyclones very high confidence.
Coastal hazards will be exacerbated by an increase in the average intensity, magnitude of storm surge and precipitation rates of tropical cyclones.
There are greater increases projected under RCP8. There is low confidence in changes in the future frequency of tropical cyclones at the global scale.
Significant wave heights the average height from trough to crest of the highest one-third of waves are projected to increase across the Southern Ocean and tropical eastern Pacific high confidence and Baltic Sea medium confidence and decrease over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea under RCP8.
Coastal tidal amplitudes and patterns are projected to change due to sea level rise and coastal adaptation measures very likely.
Projected changes in waves arising from changes in weather patterns, and changes in tides due to sea level rise, can locally enhance or ameliorate coastal hazards medium confidence.
Marine heatwaves are projected to further increase in frequency, duration, spatial extent and intensity maximum temperature very high confidence.
Climate models project increases in the frequency of marine heatwaves by , relative to —, by approximately 50 times under RCP8.
The largest increases in frequency are projected for the Arctic and the tropical oceans medium confidence. The intensity of marine heatwaves is projected to increase about fold under RCP8.
Projections indicate that extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events also increase in frequency low confidence. Lack of long-term sustained Indian and Pacific Ocean observations, and inadequacies in the ability of climate models to simulate the magnitude of trade wind decadal variability and the inter-ocean link, mean there is low confidence in future projections of the trade wind system.
The AMOC will very likely weaken over the 21st century high confidence , although a collapse is very unlikely medium confidence. Nevertheless, a substantial weakening of the AMOC remains a physically plausible scenario.
Such a weakening would strongly impact natural and human systems, leading to a decrease in marine productivity in the North Atlantic, more winter storms in Europe, a reduction in Sahelian and South Asian summer rainfall, a decrease in the number of TCs in the Atlantic, and an increase in regional sea level around the Atlantic especially along the northeast coast of North America medium confidence.
Such impacts would be superimposed on the global warming signal. If carbon emissions decline, the risk of extremes and abrupt changes are reduced, creating co-benefits.
For TCs and ETCs, investment in disaster risk reduction, flood management ecosystem and engineered and early warning systems decreases economic loss medium confidence , but such investments may be hindered by limited local capacities, such as increased losses and mortality from extreme winds and storm surges in less developed countries despite adaptation efforts.
There is emerging evidence of increasing risks for locations impacted by unprecedented storm trajectories low confidence.
Managing the risk from such changing storm trajectories and intensity proves challenging because of the difficulties of early warning and its receptivity by the affected population high confidence.
Limiting global warming would reduce the risk of impacts of MHWs, but critical thresholds for some ecosystems e. Early warning systems, producing skillful forecasts of MHWs, can further help to reduce the vulnerability in the areas of fisheries, tourism and conservation, but are yet unproven at large scale medium confidence.
Extreme change in the trade wind system and its impacts on global variability, biogeochemistry, ecosystems and society have not been adequately understood and represent significant knowledge gaps.
By , an AMOC collapse is as likely as not for high emission pathways and very unlikely for lower ones, highlighting that an AMOC collapse can be avoided in the long term by CO 2 mitigation medium confidence.
Nevertheless, the human impact of these physical changes have not been sufficiently quantified and there are considerable knowledge gaps in adaptation responses to a substantial AMOC weakening.
The ratio between risk reduction investment and reduction of damages of extreme events varies. Fresh water in lakes and streams makes up 0.
Glaciers and ice caps constitute 1. Each of the above is considered to be a reservoir of water. Water continuously circulates between these reservoirs in what is called the hydrologic cycle , which is driven by energy from the Sun.
Evaporation , precipitation , movement of the atmosphere, and the downhill flow of river water, glaciers, and groundwater keep water in motion between the reservoirs and maintain the hydrologic cycle.
The large range of volumes in these reservoirs and the rates at which water cycles between them combine to create important conditions on Earth.
If small changes occur in the rate at which water is cycled into or out of a reservoir, the volume of a reservoir changes. These volume changes may be relatively large and rapid in a small reservoir or small and slow in a large reservoir.
A small percentage change in the volume of the oceans may produce a large proportional change in the land-ice reservoir, thereby promoting glacial and interglacial stages.
The rate at which water enters or leaves a reservoir divided into the reservoir volume determines the residence time of water in the reservoir.
The residence time of water in a reservoir, in turn, governs many of the properties of that reservoir. For a full description of the water in the oceans, see seawater.
For information on the forces that move water through the ocean, see ocean current. For a description of the different kinds of waves that traverse the ocean, see wave.
See also marine ecosystem for coverage of the life-forms that populate the marine environment. Arbitrary boundaries separate these bodies of water.
The boundaries of each ocean are largely defined by the continents that frame them. In the Southern Hemisphere the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans and their tributary seas that surround Antarctica are often referred to as the Southern Ocean.
Many subdivisions can be made to distinguish the limits of seas and gulfs that have historical, political, and sometimes ecological significance.
However, water properties, ocean currents , and biological populations are not constrained by these boundaries. Indeed, many researchers do not recognize them either.
If area-volume analyses of the oceans are to be made, then boundaries must be established to separate individual regions. In Erwin Kossina, a German geographer, published tables giving the distribution of oceanic water with depth for the oceans and adjacent seas.
This work was updated in by American geologist H. Menard and American oceanographer S. The latter only slightly changed the numbers derived by Kossina.
This was remarkable, since the original effort relied entirely on the sparse depth measurements accumulated by individual wire soundings, while the more recent work had the benefit of acoustic depth soundings collected since the s.
This type of analysis, called hypsometry , allows quantification of the surface area distribution of the oceans and their marginal seas with depth.
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